Champions League perils for play-off seeds


The Champions League play-off round can be a horrible place for seeds against teams with lesser reputations.  Celtic drew Helsingborgs from a group of five possible teams.  Three of the other four were away from home in the first leg but two recorded wins.

Hapoel Kiryat Shmona lost 2-0 away to Bate Borisov while Maribor lost 2-1 away to Dinamo (no longer Croatia) Zagreb.

Romanians, Cluj, recorded an excellent 1-2 away win against our old friends Basel, while AEL Limassol beat Anderlecht 2-1 in Cyprus.  Maribor and Cluj will fancy their chances of eliminating the seed, while Limassol have a fighting chance.

In other news, HJK Helsinki are not going to drop to the Europa League group stage after we eliminated them from the Champions League earlier this month.  Last season’s finalists, Athletic Bilbao, hit them for six (first cricket metaphor on CQN?) last night.

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  1. Tallybhoy


    12:41 on


    24 August, 2012



    Ambition of greed?



    I think we have become numb to the figures these guys are receiving. the example you give is a 50k per week wage difference, assume that is a 3 year contract for now, that is 7.8 million of a difference in 3 years . 7800000 !!! ambition or greed? no brainer!

  2. I think the guy from STV has seen the story about us linked with Otsu and thought because we are in the market for a CH he would throw in the name Maya Yoshida. I don’t believe that is who we are signing.



    Totally underwhelmed if true.

  3. Kayal33



    Well blow me down, I thought he was a midfielder, just shows how much attention I pay.



    Is there any truth in the Ambrose thing, he is a decent player from what I have seen of him, not much mind you.

  4. ..



    To Shear Sammi’s Locks..OMG (Our Mythical Ghod)..



    Maybe Lenny was Right..If you Shear Sammi’s Locks Lenny might get the Sack..



    Some Might Say (Sounds like a Song)..The KoK Did it..(Sheared his Famous Locks..) and Got Better..Better Some might Say..Than Alan Shearer..See what l did there..






    To Shear The GoG.. (Ghod of Ghods)..No..No..No..No..



    As Mark Hateley would Say..To Shear the GoG is Like..A New The Shining Movie..Here’s Johnny..



    Summa of SamarasHairTodayGoneTomorrowCSC

  5. kdc



    what a player Kayal could be ….



    Does anyone know if it is the same injury recurring?



    Who knows. He is fast becoming Celtic’s answer to Darren ‘Sicknote’ Anderton

  6. kdc, Kayal tweeted just after the Helsingsborg match that he “felt a bit injured” during the first half and asked to be substituted at half-time. Ankle injury?

  7. LordLuvRocket



    Apparently, according to STV twitter, Lenny was asked directly about the 2 Japanese players at press conference today and confirmed we are ‘keeping tabs’ on them.

  8. Son of Gabriel on

    IstanbulCelt: 11:26




    I saw Neill Lennon after that game and said hi to him, he was sitting doing something in private on his blackberry.



    But from my seat that wee number 7 was exceptional. He started the match excellently, although fell away slightly, was up against Alba of sapin though who Barca just signed for…11m?…I think.



    There are 2 others I wouldnt mind taking a look at though, the number 11 ( fast striker who runs all day) and the number 17 (excellent passer of the ball, pulled the strings for his team, although I think hes the one playing for Nuremburg at present and probly out our price range)



    Glad u mentioned that, has my hopes up.


    However all are rather on the short side;



    but there is an argument that if ur good enough your tall enough

  9. Son of Gabriel on

    Also, the number 7 scored in that game by sheer intelligence and positioning at the corner, however that may have been Spains poor positioning

  10. So Ledley to miss a couple of weeks, disappointing as he was playing so well. However he should be fit for the first CL group game (or the first EL group game if we mess up big time!)



    Kayal played poorly on Tuesday after a good start but by the sounds of things that was due to injury, shame he’s out for a month, he could miss one or two group stage games



    Hopefully Broony will be rested at the weekend and fit for Wednesday, and glad Big Vic is back fit as those two are likely to start as the two CMs v Helsinborgs.



    With Ki going, no need to sell anybody else this summer, and hopefully bring in a CB and a striker in the next week or so.




  11. Lennon n Mc....Mjallby on

    Is it stereotypical to think Japanese defenders would be too wee and no’ bruiser-like?



    They tend to have cool haircuts but so that’s ok.

  12. Kayal33



    Agree on Kayal, I have a sense that Kayal is not a long term solution and that his rushing tactics allow the opposition to pass the ball around him , which leads to more frustration and then usually a lunge or rash tackle and then an injury.



    Ledleys injury is more worrying , although I see Joe as merely covering Izzy , Joe can go for long spells just not contributing, so it will be interesting to see what we do balance the midfield. Will we miss Joe?



    I believe that Lustig should start at RB on Saturday , swap Matthews to LB and shift Chas to left midfield. Centre half pairing is then Thomas and Kelvin. Izzy can warm the bench for a few weeks until he learns not to rush forward into a crowded midfield area where the chances of receiving the ball are 50 / 50.



    Pity young Dylan is out as he looked ready for a run of games.



    Confidence from Tuesday will see us beat ICT by 2 clear goals.

  13. Cheers Kayal33, will teach me to speak without checking the facts ha!



    I just wonder about CH from that part of the world in this league. Not sure they would cope with the ‘rough n tumble’ of the SPL.

  14. thinking sevco after talking to a sevco fan at lunchtime:



    It’s easier to fool people than to convince them that they have been fooled. – Mark Twain

  15. Celtic manager Neil Lennon says he is “keeping tabs” on Japanese duo Maya Yoshida and Yuki Otsu.



    Yoshida, a central defender currently with VVV Venlo, and Otsu, a forward plying his trade in Germany with Borussia Moenchengladbach, were both linked with a move to the SPL champions on Friday morning.



    Lennon though says he doesn’t expect to make any movement in the transfer market until next week, with Celtic playing their Champions League play-off round second leg tie with Helsingborg on Wednesday.

  16. Awe_Naw_No_Annoni_Oan_Anaw_Noo on

    Do we now get more pleasure from successful financial wheeling and dealing than we do from being successful on the field of play ?



    I will stick my neck out and say that it is a definite yes.



    It may not be that long before Neil Lennon is contesting our 15th SPL title in a row.



    I genuinely believe that we were diddled out of the treble last year by referees.



    Since WGS left our European games have been instantly forgettable. Is there a video or DVD of our European exertions these last four years ?



    We have recently managed to get some good footballers into the club. recently Forster, Ki, Wanyama, Kayal, Hooper etc but we seem more inclined to look at their monetary value than anything they are doing or not doing on the pitch.



    Following Celtic these days is more like a game of monopoly armed with a hefty financial prospectus on a rainy day than a game of long shootie 3 and in … world cup on a summers day.



    It would also appear that money chit chat is the main stay of CQN there is less and less chat about permutations , combinations, weaknesses , strengths, character traits etc.



    It seems you are either good or bad. A liability or an increasing asset.



    If your a liability then you are worse than worthless



    If your an increasing asset then your loved.



    There must be a board game (yes a board game) that we can devise that covers modern football and that would sell. An extension of the FFL stuff.




    Hail Hail

  17. Ten men won the league



    Shame about Keatings, really thought he had a future before that injury, obviously not part of Lennys plans if he is being shipped out to division one when this season is perfect for fielding younger players. Another youngster who probably hasn’t lived up to his potential.



    To be quite honest, as soon as a youngster is loaned out I immediately feel they have no future at Celtic Park. Can’t remember a player coming back from loan and breaking into the first team, eg McGowen, Towell, Toshney and even more senior players like O’Dea, McManus, Juarez, Rasmussen. Anyone who goes out on loan is probably not good enough!



    The ones that have succeeded haven’t been shipped out to ‘get first team experience’ – they’ve done it at Celtic and that’s why it’s pleasing to see Watt and McGeough stay at the club, it suggests they have a future. Look at McGeady and Forrest, they were never out on loan




  18. I have said a few times on here that as great a player as Kayal is, what is the point if you only get 3 months a season out of him.




    Celtic will be without key midfielders Beram Kayal and Joe Ledley for several weeks due to injury.



    The due both played in the Champions League play-off match against Helsingborg on Tuesday but now face a period of time on the sidelines.



    Celtic manager Neil Lennon revealed at his weekly news conference that Kayal will miss three to four weeks due to an ankle knock, while Ledley has a groin injury that will force him to sit out two weeks.



    Celtic have made an approach to sign Japan international Yuki Otsu on a one-year loan deal from Borussia Monchedgladbach, according to reports in the Far East.



    The 22 year-old starred in the 2012 London Olympics where he scored three goals, including the winner in Japan’s stunning 1-0 triumph over Spain.



    According to reports in Asia, Celtic officials are currently in negotiations with Bundesliga side Gladbach and a decision will be known in the coming days.

  19. Awe_Naw_No_Annoni_Oan_Anaw_Noo on




    I think your average CQNer gets more turned on by pence and pounds and is especially horny for safety compared to cups and medals.



    Hail Hail

  20. Snake Plissken on

    Kayal and Ledley out of next week’s game is a big blow and it means some rejigging is required.



    Play the kids this weekend against the thugs of Inverness. We cannot have any more injuries and Butcher’s mob will be only too willing to try and give us some more.



    The midfield next week must be – Samaras, Commons, Wanyama, Brown and Forrest



    or move Charlie into midfield and leave James Forrest on the bench to come on.



    We are without too many players to be taking risks this weekend. This might mean a start for Paddy McCourt this weekend.

  21. Awe_Naw_No_Annoni_Oan_Anaw_Noo on

    I need to enhance Hobby Tony V1.0 …. to try and collect these thoughts … coudl be interesting



    Hail Hail

  22. Awe_Naw_No_Annoni_Oan_Anaw_Noo on

    Yuki Otsu got on the pitch three times for Borussia Monchedgladbach last season. He was there Koki Mizuno.



    Hail Hail

  23. David Peter Deans on

    Good afternoon guys,



    Just a question with regards to the sale of Ki to Swansea for £5 million . Neil Lennon as said this is good business, could anyone please explain to me that turning down Ruban kazans offer of £6 million early in the year and excepting the Swansea offer of £1 million less is good business. Or are the figs quoted incorrect.

  24. Awe naw,



    I thinks it’s more a habit we’ve fallen into across all football, not confined to CQN. CL qualifiers get billed as £xxm tickets, league play-offs are quantified by money for example. No mention of the football to look forward to from winning, no mention of getting a higher level of football.



    I’m ditching the financials and see how I do ;)

  25. Awe_Naw_No_Annoni_Oan_Anaw_Noo on

    David Peter Deans



    You are failing to factor in the Peter Lawwell pre season Swansea friendly



    HAil HAil

  26. There’s a good business/bad business post above this, not a mention of Ki’s ability/loss to the team (or not)

  27. Awe_Naw_No_Annoni_Oan_Anaw_Noo on

    Some Real-World Examples of Why Pro Sports Franchises Succeed … or Fail


    by Glen Hodgson and Mario Lefebvre | October 2011



    Strong ownership and management, adequate playing facilities, and a commitment to building fan support are keys to success when it comes to pro sports franchises. And there is no shortage of examples that illustrate this fact.


    For fans, professional sports entertainment is fundamentally about “their” team and its success on the playing field. But to remain consistently competitive, those teams must also succeed financially. Briefing 8 (Why Pro Sports Franchises Succeed … and Fail) in this series set out the key factors that help determine why some pro sports franchises succeed, everything else being equal, while others languish. These factors include:


    ownership and management strength;


    the availability of adequate playing facilities; and


    fan support for the team.


    Examples abound of how these three factors affect the health of pro sport franchises. Here are a few concrete cases.


    Ownership and Management Strength


    A key dimension of team success, both athletically and financially, is the strength of the ownership and management of the franchise. Ownership helps to establish the culture of the organization. Ownership selects the management team that, in turn, runs the franchise as a business and oversees the team on the field or rink.


    For every positive example of sustained ownership and management strength that has resulted in sustained competitive and financial success (such as the National Hockey League’s Detroit Red Wings after Mike Ilitch bought the team in 1982), there are examples of teams that have suffered a chronic failure at the ownership and/or management level. The Phoenix Coyotes, the Florida Panthers, and the Atlanta Thrashers (who have since packed up and moved to Winnipeg) are examples of franchises where something important was (or is) missing at the level of ownership and/or management—problems that go beyond the four market pillars for success1 or the competitive conditions of the league.2


    Case 1: Management Matters—The Fumbling of the Ottawa Rough Riders


    Over time, weak franchise management and poor decision-making can create a self-perpetuating downward cycle of mediocrity and steady decline that eventually leads to the failure of the franchise. The Ottawa Rough Riders stand as a clear example of combined ownership–management failure and how it can lead to a downward spiral.


    The Ottawa Rough Riders were once the pride of Canada’s national capital and its surrounding regions. Founded in 1876, the Canadian Football League team won nine Grey Cup championships, including four from 1968 to 1976. The Rough Riders were a model of a successful—and sustainable—sports franchise during that period. The team was owned by well-capitalized local business leaders and run frugally by managers who treated it as a business rather than a hobby. Although privately owned, the organization had deep community connections through its ownership and its most visible employees—the players. The Rough Riders developed a loyal and passionate (albeit demanding and vocal) customer base. Their fans expected success, but also viewed the team as a source of personal pride.


    For every positive example of sustained ownership and management success, there are examples of teams that have suffered a chronic failure at the ownership and/or management level.



    In the late 1970s, the success started to run out. The descent was slow at first. The Rough Riders had their last winning season in 1979, appeared in their last Grey Cup final in 1981, and won their last playoff game in 1982. While many of the elements for on- and off-the-field success remained in place into the 1980s, looking back it is clear to see that changes in ownership and management during this period were turning points for the franchise. The franchise changed hands in 1977. And as the franchise began to sputter and then spiral downward, the Riders went through six more ownership changes, starting in 1987 and ending with the folding of the club in 1996.


    Year after year of losing seasons led to coaching, management, and—ultimately—ownership changes. Each new owner left the franchise further behind its competitors. On the field, the Riders could not keep up with other CFL teams. And off the field, the franchise steadily lost customers to the increasing entertainment options available in the Ottawa market. Gimmicks, such as pre-game concerts and giveaways of tickets and paraphernalia, proved to be no substitute for fielding a competitive team.


    In their final seasons, the Rough Riders went from being merely a bad team to being a public embarrassment. The franchise steadily eroded the one intangible that keeps sports fans coming back to cheer on their team—pride. A fan base that had for decades consistently responded to every hopeful sign finally lost interest.3


    The lesson here for all sports franchises is that success is not pre-ordained. It doesn’t come by simply opening the stadium doors and appealing to fans’ memories of past glories. Ownership must see its investment as a long-term commitment—at least 10 years into the future, not a one-to-five-year team rescue or a quick asset flip. Fans have to be treated as what they are—customers who have choices about where and how they spend their time and money. Finally, quality counts . . . a lot.


    Case 2: Liverpool FC—How Ownership, Finances, and Performance Are Linked


    Questionable financial decisions by owners and management can clearly affect a franchise’s results on the field. The recent history of the English football club Liverpool provides a current example of how ownership, management, and team performance are interlinked. Liverpool FC was acquired in 2007 by two Americans—George Gillett and Tom Hicks—through a leveraged buy-out that relied heavily on debt financing. The new owners were speculating, with borrowed money, that franchise values for top-tier English Premiership football teams would continue to rise as they had during the 1990s and 2000s.


    However, the 2008–09 financial crisis and recession, combined with poorer-than-expected results on the field, hurt club revenues. The negative spiral effect soon set in. As the owners became less willing to spend the millions required to acquire new top players, the team’s results began to suffer. Liverpool FC supporters became increasingly unhappy with the club’s absentee owners. Financial conditions and team performance declined in parallel. And as the team’s success on the pitch faded in 2009 and 2010, the financial institutions that held debt in the franchise began to get nervous and to press for repayment. But the U.S. owners were badly overstretched on many fronts, increasing the risk that the owners would be unable to repay the debt that was the financial underpinning for Liverpool FC. By the summer of 2010, the team was facing a growing financial and competitive crisis—and the passionate fan base was beginning to revolt, stalking the owners (literally) and threatening the banks that had provided the debt financing.


    Ownership must see its investment as a long-term commitment—at least 10 years into the future, not a one-to-five-year team rescue or a quick asset flip.



    The situation was resolved in October 2010 through the sale of the club to another U.S. investor, Boston Red Sox owner John Henry. Fortunately for the franchise, the rescue came before the downward spiral could advance to the point of a critical competitive decline and financial collapse. The new owners quickly changed team management, sacking Roy Hodgson and bringing back a popular previous manager, Kenny Dalglish. In early 2011, the team’s results on the pitch quickly improved, even as one of its star players (Fernando Torres) was being sold to a hated rival (Chelsea) for £50 million.


    Better results on the pitch, combined with stronger ownership, may now help to create a positive spiral, lifting Liverpool’s financial and competitive performances and increasing the club’s capacity to buy additional top-quality talent. This positive change in ownership, financial strength, and management could propel Liverpool FC back into the top rungs of the English Premier League and Europe once again this season.


    Pro Sports Facilities


    If a team is to succeed financially, it must have a professional sports facility of appropriate scale and quality. A team’s financial success can be derailed by a poor facility, no matter how great the market or how supportive the league conditions. At the same time, financial and competitive success can, in some cases, be restored by the construction of a new building.


    Case 3: Montréal’s Olympic Stadium vs. Cleveland’s Jacobs/Progressive Field


    How important is a good venue to the success of a baseball franchise? The lack of a baseball-specific stadium was not the sole factor behind the departure of the Montreal Expos in 2004.4 However, having to play in the concrete confines of Montréal’s Olympic Stadium certainly did not help the team’s cause. The “Big O” was not designed for baseball. The crowd was far from the field and sightlines were poor. The stadium was supposed to have a retractable parachute-style roof, but it took over a decade after the Expos moved in for the roof to be added—and then it proved to be impractical to retract and was later replaced by a fixed roof. Given how short Montréal summers are, the thought of spending a sunny summer day indoors watching baseball did not appeal to fans—just as sitting in the open for baseball games on a cold April day before the roof was in place had not been an attractive idea. The stadium was also perceived as being too far from the city’s downtown core—another strike against it. By the early 1990s, the stadium was showing acute signs of fatigue, and some fans began to fear for their safety after a 55-tonne concrete slab fell on to an exposed walkway in 1991.


    While being forced to play in an aging or poorly designed facility can cripple a Major League Baseball franchise, a new facility can help revive it. Just ask the Cleveland Indians. For decades, the franchise was a laughing stock. The Indians played in Cleveland Municipal Stadium—a cavernous, multi-purpose stadium on the shores of Lake Erie that was nicknamed the “Mistake by the Lake.” From 1960 to 1993, the Indians managed just one third-place finish and six fourth-place finishes. The rest of the time was spent at or near the bottom of the standings. That began to change in the early 1990s, as ownership made a concerted effort to rebuild the franchise—including the construction of a new $175-million downtown ballpark that was financed on a roughly 50-50 basis by private and public sector money. The Indians opened Jacobs Field (later renamed Progressive Field) in 1994. Attendance took off, and so did club revenues and the ability to spend on players. By August, the Indians were trailing their division by only one game—at which point the players strike wiped out the rest of the season.


    A team’s financial success can be derailed by a poor facility, no matter how great the market or how supportive the league conditions.



    The strike marked the beginning of a long slide to oblivion for the Expos. But when baseball returned in 1995, the Indians—playing in their new ballpark—continued to soar. Cleveland sprinted to a 100–44 record5 in 1995, winning its first ever divisional title. Cleveland then went on to a World Series berth for the first time since 1954. With tickets for every home game sold out before opening day, the Indians would repeat as AL Central champions in 1996—and they would do so again for three more years.


    What a difference a quality facility can make! Baseball was a hit in Cleveland once again. No, it was not just due to the new downtown ballpark. And yes, there have been some losing seasons for the Indians in recent years. But the venue was a major part of the ownership’s plan to turn the franchise around. And while the Expos did not pack up and move to Washington solely because they were stuck in the Big O, playing in an aging and non-baseball-friendly stadium certainly contributed to the team’s problems.


    Case 4: Replacing Le Colisée de Québec


    While not as strikingly bad a venue as the Olympic Stadium, Le Colisée de Québec posed serious limitations on the Québec Nordiques franchise. The arena was home to the National Hockey League club from 1979 to 1995. By the end, it no longer met the requirements of a competitive NHL franchise. At a little over 15,000, its seating capacity was low. But Le Colisée’s biggest shortcoming was its low number of corporate boxes. With player salaries rising rapidly, NHL teams needed the additional revenues that corporate boxes provide—but you can’t sell more boxes if you don’t have them. (The Winnipeg Arena—home to the first incarnation of the Winnipeg Jets—faced the same limitations.) An aging arena was not the sole reason why the Nordiques left town, but it was one of the key factors behind the problems the franchise faced.


    Today, plans to bring the Nordiques back to Québec City include the construction of a brand new arena. Any serious attempt to bring back the Nordiques must include the construction of a new venue (just as any attempt to bring the Expos back to Montréal would require a new playing facility, ideally in downtown Montréal). The challenge for Québec City will be to reap the maximum socio-economic benefits from any public investment in a facility, at the lowest cost possible to taxpayers.6


    Fan Support


    The third factor for franchise success is the evolving appeal of specific pro sports to the consumer. All professional sports leagues and franchises need to be aware of how demographic trends and consumer tastes are evolving in their markets.


    For example, an aging population might be good news for professional baseball, since older fans may be more attracted to the slower pace of the game. On the other hand, it could be a concern for hockey if it turns out that older fans are less attracted by the fast and sometimes violent game. Or an aging population could be a positive challenge for professional hockey franchises that develop marketing strategies aimed at retaining or attracting older fans (and their greater disposable incomes). The same holds true when it comes to winning young fans. Professional sports teams must work hard to attract young people to the game, since these fans will make up the sport’s future client base.


    Another very important phenomenon that professional sports teams must understand and integrate in their business models is the globalization of the population. Some markets are home to a large influx of immigrants every year. Toronto, Vancouver, and Montréal account for a significant share of Canada’s growing immigrant population, and professional sports franchises must adjust to this new reality. It’s no surprise that MLS pro soccer has taken off in these cities with their rapidly growing foreign-born populations. In Toronto, over 40 per cent of the population today was born outside Canada. For many, soccer is their team sport.


    All professional sports leagues and franchises need to be aware of how demographic trends and consumer tastes are evolving in their markets.



    While newcomers to Canada make up a rapidly growing part of the potential fan base, average incomes among recent immigrants lag behind those of other Canadians, which may constrain their purchasing power when it comes to pro sports. Still, ignoring the demographic reality today could hurt the financial viability of professional sports teams in the future.


    No matter the origin or the age of a fan, and no matter the adequacy of the marketing campaign, the ultimate strategy for any professional sports team is to put a quality product on the field or rink. People love a winner, and putting together a competitive team will sustain and grow fan interest. An individual may not be a fan at first, but he or she will soon enjoy the atmosphere a winning team generates within a community—gathering with friends to watch important games and maybe even participate in a victory parade at the end of the season. Professional sports can bring people together, and winning sure helps do that.




    Throughout our Playing in the Big Leagues series, we have demonstrated that when the fundamental market and league conditions are right, a pro sports franchise can succeed in a given market. And as described in our eighth briefing (Why Pro Sports Franchises Succeed . . . and Fail), strong ownership and management can make a good franchise great. Conversely, poor ownership and management can undermine a franchise despite strong market and league conditions—as we saw with the demise of the Ottawa Rough Riders and the struggles of Liverpool FC before new owners were brought in. We also see it in the continuing saga of most of Toronto’s pro sports franchises, which are generally successful financially but less than successful on the field or ice. A quality playing facility can also make a huge difference to a franchise’s success. That lesson can be clearly seen in the diverging stories of the baseball facilities in Cleveland and Montréal and their contribution to the home teams’ success or failure. Then there is the case of Le Colisée in Québec City and why a new facility is absolutely essential to any efforts to bring an NHL team back to Quebec.


    Lastly, there is the link between fan support for a given team and the evolving demographics in a community—and how important it is to adapt the team’s market positioning to those demographic realities.


    Future briefings in this series will draw upon the full analytical structure we have developed so far (the four market pillars, league competitive conditions, who pays for new facilities, and franchise-specific factors) to provide a base for further assessing various aspects of the economics of pro sports in Canada and beyond.


    Next up is a look at the success (or lack thereof) of Toronto professional sport franchises, followed by a look at how many franchises the CFL could sustain in Canada. Later on, we will assess how many NHL teams Canada could support. Stay tuned.


    1 See the second briefing in this series, Defining the Market Conditions for Success.


    2 See the fourth briefing in this series, Competitive Conditions in Pro Sports Leagues.


    3 Thanks to Brent Dowdall, our colleague at The Conference Board of Canada and author of Turnover: The Fumbling of the Ottawa Rough Riders (Carp, Ont.: Baird O’Keefe Publishing, 1999), for providing this succinct assessment of the collapse of the Ottawa Rough Riders.


    4 For more on the reasons behind the departure of the Expos, see the sixth briefing in this series, The Future of Major League Baseball in Canada.


    5 The 1995 season was shortened to 144 games as a result of the strike, which wasn’t resolved until early April.


    6 See our seventh briefing in this series—Who Should Pay for New Pro Sports Facilities?—for a more detailed discussion on this issue.





    The Conference Board of Canada would like to thank Jim Kyte and our colleagues Brent Dowdall and Michael Grant for their helpful insights and comments on an earlier version of this briefing. Any errors of substance or interpretation are those of the authors.

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